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18世紀60年代,著名數學家歐拉應邀為德國公主函授哲學、物理學、宇宙學、化學、音樂等多個科學和藝術分支的知識。為此他寫下了一系列文筆優美的文章,它們充分體現了歐拉淵博的知識、極高的文學修養和哲學修養。這些通信被整理成書並翻譯成英文,分兩卷出版,本卷收錄了115篇文章。

  • PREFACE.(第PREFACE-1頁)
  • THE LIFE OF EULER.(第THE LIFE OF EULER-1頁)
  • LETTER I. Of Magnitude, or Extension.(第1頁)
  • LETTER II. Of Velocity.(第3頁)
  • LETTER III. Of Sound, and Its Velocity.(第4頁)
  • LETTER IV. Of Consonance and Dissonance.(第6頁)
  • LETTER V. Of Unison and Octaves.(第8頁)
  • LETTER VI. Of Other Consonances.(第10頁)
  • LETTER VII. Of the Twelve Tones of the Harpsichord.(第12頁)
  • LETTER VIII. Of the Pleasure Derived from Fine Music.(第15頁)
  • LETTER IX. Compression of the Air.(第16頁)
  • LETTER X. Rarefaction and Elasticity of the Air.(第18頁)
  • LETTER XI. Gravity of the Air.(第20頁)
  • LETTER XII. Of the Atmosphere, and the Barometer.(第22頁)
  • LETTER XIII. Of Air-guns, and the Compression of Air in Gunpowder.(第24頁)
  • LETTER XIV. The Effect Produced by Heat and Cold on All Bodies, and of the Pyrometer and Thermometer.(第26頁)
  • LETTER XV. Changes Produced in the Atmosphere by Heat and Cold.(第27頁)
  • LETTER XVI. The Cold Felt on High Mountains and at Great Depths Accounted for.(第29頁)
  • LETTER XVII. Of Light, and the Systems of Descartes and Newton.(第31頁)
  • LETTER XVIII. Difficulties Attending the System of Emanation.(第33頁)
  • LETTER XIX. A Different System Respecting the Nature of Rays and of Light, Proposed.(第35頁)
  • LETTER XX. Of the Propagation of Light.(第38頁)
  • LETTER XXI. Digression on the Distances of the Heavenly Bodies, and on the Nature of the Sun, and His Rays.(第40頁)
  • LETTER XXII. Elucidations on the Nature of Luminous Bodies, and Their Difference from Opaque Bodies Illumined.(第41頁)
  • LETTER XXIII. How Opaque Bodies Become Visible. Newton’s System of the Reflection of Rays Proposed.(第44頁)
  • LETTER XXIV. Examination and Refutation of Newton’s System.(第46頁)
  • LETTER XXV. A Different Explanation of the Manner in Which Opaque Bodies Illuminated Become Visible.(第48頁)
  • LETTER XXVI. Continuation of the Same Subject.(第49頁)
  • LETTER XXVII. Conclusion: Clearness and Colour of Opaque Bodies Illuminated.(第51頁)
  • LETTER XXVIII. Nature of Colours in Particular.(第53頁)
  • LETTER XXIX. Transparency of Bodies Relative to the Transmission of Rays.(第55頁)
  • LETTER XXX. Of the Transmission of Rays of Light, through Transparent Mediums, and Their Refraction.(第57頁)
  • LETTER XXXI. Refraction of Rays of Different Colours.(第60頁)
  • LETTER XXXII. Of the Azure Colour of the Heavens.(第62頁)
  • LETTER XXXIII. Of Rays Issuing from a Distant Luminous Point, and of the Visual Angle.(第64頁)
  • LETTER XXXIV. Of the Assistance Which Judgment Lends to Vision.(第66頁)
  • LETTER XXXV. Explanation of Certain Phenomena Relative to Optics.(第68頁)
  • LETTER XXXVI. Of Shadow.(第70頁)
  • LETTER XXXVII. Of Catoptrics, and the Reflection of Rays from Plain Mirrors.(第73頁)
  • LETTER XXXVIII. Reflection of Rays from Convex and Concave Mirrors. Burning Mirrors.(第75頁)
  • LETTER XXXIX. Of Dioptrics.(第77頁)
  • LETTER XL. Continuation. — Of Burning-glasses and Their Focus.(第80頁)
  • LETTER XLI. Of Vision, and the Structure of the Eye.(第82頁)
  • LETTER XLII. Continuation. Wonders Discoverable in the Structure of the Eye.(第83頁)
  • LETTER XLIII. Further Continuation. — Astonishing Difference between the Eye of an Animal, and the Artificial Eye or Camera Obscura.(第85頁)
  • LETTER XLIV. Perfections Discoverable in the Structure of the Eye.(第87頁)
  • LETTER XLV. Of Gravity, Considered as a General Property of Body.(第89頁)
  • LETTER XLVI. Continuation. Of Specific Gravity.(第91頁)
  • LETTER XLVII. Terms Relative to Gravity, and Their True Import.(第93頁)
  • LETTER XLVIII. Reply to Certain Objections to the Earth’s Spherical Figure, Derived from Gravity.(第94頁)
  • LETTER XLIX. True Direction and Action of Gravity Relatively to the Earth.(第96頁)
  • LETTER L. Different Action of Gravity with Respect to Certain Countries and Distances from the Centre of the Earth.(第98頁)
  • LETTER LI. Gravity of the Moon.(第100頁)
  • LETTER LII. Discovery of Universal Gravitation by Newton.(第101頁)
  • LETTER LIII. Continuation. Of the Mutual Attraction of the Heavenly Bodies.(第103頁)
  • LETTER LIV. Different Sentiments of Philosophers Respecting Universal Gravitation. The Attractionists.(第105頁)
  • LETTER LV. Power by Which the Heavenly Bodies are Mutually Attracted.(第107頁)
  • LETTER LIV. The Same Subject Continued.(第108頁)
  • LETTER LVII. The Same Subject Continued.(第110頁)
  • LETTER LVIII. Motion of the Heavenly Bodies. Method of Determining It by the Laws of Universal Gravitation.(第112頁)
  • LETTER LIX. System of the Universe.(第113頁)
  • LETTER LX. The Same Subject Continued.(第115頁)
  • LETTER LXI. Small Irregularities in the Motions of the Planets, Caused by Their Mutual Attraction.(第117頁)
  • LETTER LXII. Description of the Flux and Reflux of the Sea.(第119頁)
  • LETTER LXIII. Different Opinions of Philosophers Respecting the Flux and Reflux of the Sea.(第121頁)
  • LETTER LXIV. Explanation of the Flux and Reflux, from the Attractive Power of the Moon.(第123頁)
  • LETTER LXV. The Same Subject Continued.(第125頁)
  • LETTER LXVI. The Same Subject Continued.(第126頁)
  • LETTER LXVII. The Same Subject Continued.(第128頁)
  • LETTER LXVIII. More Particular Account of the Dispute Respecting Universal Gravitation.(第130頁)
  • LETTER LXIX. Nature and Essence of Bodies; or Extension, Mobility, and Impenetrability of Body.(第132頁)
  • LETTER LXX. Impenetrability of Bodies.(第134頁)
  • LETTER LXXI. Of the Motion of Bodies, Real and Apparent.(第136頁)
  • LETTER LXXII. Of Uniform, Accelerated, and Retarded Motion.(第138頁)
  • LETTER LXXIII. Principal Law of Motion and Rest. Disputes of Philosophers on the Subject.(第140頁)
  • LETTER LXXIV. Of the Inertia of Bodies: Of Powers.(第143頁)
  • LETTER LXXV. Changes Which May Take Place in the State of Bodies.(第145頁)
  • LETTER LXXVI. System of the Monads of Wolff.(第147頁)
  • LETTER LXXVII. Origin and Nature of Powers.(第149頁)
  • LETTER LXXVIII. The Same Subject. Principle of the Least Possible Action.(第151頁)
  • LETTER LXXIX. On the Question, Are There Any Other Species of Powers?(第153頁)
  • LETTER LXXX. Of the Nature of Spirits.(第155頁)
  • LETTER LXXXI. Of the Union between the Soul and the Body.(第156頁)
  • LETTER LXXXII. Different Systems Relative to This Subject.(第158頁)
  • LETTER LXXXIII. Examination of the System of Pre-established Harmony. Objection to It.(第160頁)
  • LETTER LXXXIV. Another Objection.(第162頁)
  • LETTER LXXXV. Of the Liberty of Spirits; and a Reply to Objections against Liberty.(第164頁)
  • LETTER LXXXVI. The Same Subject Continued.(第165頁)
  • LETTER LXXXVII. Influence of the Liberty of Spirits upon Events.(第167頁)
  • LETTER LXXXVIII. Of Events, Natural, Supernatural, and Moral.(第169頁)
  • LETTER LXXXIX. Of the Question Respecting the Best World Possible; and of the Origin of Evil.(第171頁)
  • LETTER XC. Connexion of the Preceding Considerations with Religion. Reply to the Objections of the Philosophical Systems against Prayer.(第174頁)
  • LETTER XCI. The Liberty of Intelligent Beings in Harmony with the Doctrines of the Christian Religion.(第176頁)
  • LETTER XCII. Elucidation Respecting the Nature of Spirits.(第177頁)
  • LETTER XCIII. The Subject Continued. Reflections on the State of Souls after Death.(第179頁)
  • LETTER XCIV. Considerations on the Action of the Soul upon the Body, and of the Body upon the Soul.(第181頁)
  • LETTER XCV. Of the Faculties of the Soul, and of Judgment.(第184頁)
  • LETTER XCVI. Conviction of the Existence of What We Perceive by the Senses. Of the Idealists, Egotists, and Materialists.(第186頁)
  • LETTER XCVII. Refutation of the Idealists.(第188頁)
  • LETTER XCVIII. The Faculty of Perceiving. Reminiscence, Memory, and Attention. Simple and Compound Ideas.(第190頁)
  • LETTER XCIX. Division of Ideas into Clear and Obscure, Distinct and Confused. Of Distraction.(第192頁)
  • LETTER C. Of the Abstraction of Notions. Notions General and Individual. Of Genus and Species.(第194頁)
  • LETTER CI. Of Language; Its Nature, Advantages, and Necessity, in Order to the Communication of Thought, and the Cultivation of Knowledge.(第196頁)
  • LETTER CII. Of the Perfections of a Language. Judgments and Nature of Propositions, Affirmative and Negative; Universal or Particular.(第198頁)
  • LETTER CIII. Of Syllogisms, and Their Different Forms, When the First Proposition Is Universal.(第201頁)
  • LETTER CIV. Different Forms of Syllogisms, Whose First Proposition Is Particular.(第205頁)
  • LETTER CV. Analysis of Some Syllogisms.(第209頁)
  • LETTER CVI. Different Figures and Modes of Syllogisms.(第211頁)
  • LETTER CVII. Observations and Reflections on the Different Modes of Syllogism.(第215頁)
  • LETTER CVIII. Hypothetical Propositions, and Syllogisms Constructed of Them.(第217頁)
  • LETTER CIX. Of the Impression of Sensations on the Soul.(第220頁)
  • LETTER CX. Of the Origin and Permission of Evil; and of Sin.(第222頁)
  • LETTER CXI. Of Moral and Physical Evil.(第224頁)
  • LETTER CXII. Reply to Complaints of the Existence of Physical Evil.(第226頁)
  • LETTER CXIII. The Real Destination of Man; Usefulness and Necessity of Adversity.(第227頁)
  • LETTER CXIV. Of True Happiness. Conversion of Sinners. Reply to Objections on the Subject.(第229頁)
  • LETTER CXV. The True Foundation of Human Knowledge. Sources of Truth, and Classes of Information Derived from It.(第231頁)
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租期14天
今日租書可閱讀至2021-12-11
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